Religious Traditions and Circumcisions of the Pharaohs. Just when and why circumcision was first practiced in the ancient Near East is not known, but it was widely attested in antiquity.
Bodies from B. Ancient Egyptian art, on those occasions when the genitals of Egyptian males were depicted, provide evidence of male circumcision.
For example, the carpenter portrayed in the 6th dynasty, B. Tomb at Saqqara, 6th dynasty, B. Tomb on Ankh-ma-Hor at Saqquara, 6th dynasty. The Abrahamic convenant, invented by priests, transformed circumcision from an ethic convenant into a theological divinely ordained legal requirement.
It is not a puberty rite nor a pre-marital ritual. It is a covenantal sign to be inflicted on infant males on the eight day after birth to signify their inclusion in the divine promises.
Failure to circumcise or be circumcised marks a breach of the covenant. The story concludes with the year-old Abraham circumcising himself, his son Ismail, who was 13 years old, and all male members of his extended household. Larue, Religious Traditions and Circumcision. God made a contract with Abraham on circumcision. Abraham was not circumcised before going to and after returning from Egypt. This is Zemzem near Mecca. Father, my heart goes out to Hagar.
She has suffered slavery, jealousy, mistreatment, and yet you see her and have a plan for her life. Lord, you have a plan for my life, too, and for the lives of my brothers and sisters. Help me to be willing to submit to whatever situation you call me to. Through the Torah, Bible and the Koran we all are aware of the descendants of the Kingdoms of the Hijaz from the time of Ismail to Jesus to the time of the Prophet Mohammad.
Adnan is the direct descendant of Ismail. Changes in Styles, Characters and Pronunciation of Letters. Ay became in D: Command your companion's al-Aji and al -Thalj. The al-Ajj is to raise your voice in pronouncing the Talbiyah Laabik Allahumma Labbaik out loud, while the al -Thalj is to slaughter an animal on the day of Eid. Forty Hadith of Hajj. Overseer of the Kaabah before Islam: One of the last holders of the Kaabah before Islam was Amr ibn Hicham , better known by his nickname as:.
Abi or Abu is the same: Therefore, Abi means the same as Aji because the origin of the word has its roots in Egypt , is a title and hence is to be translated as:. Within the early years of Islam and after we found many Aji descendants throughout the world. The life and religion of the Pre-Islamic Arabs, especially in the Hijaz, depended on trade and they made a trade of their religion as well.
This was one of the chief deities of the Quraysh before Islam. Hubal, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Memoir of the author by Henry T. Prinsep, London, , v. Hindu Coins-First Kanauj Series, pg. Pillar of Javanese house Forty Hadith of Hajj ; 03 - Talbiyah and the Sacrifice. Command your companion's al-Ajj and al -Thalj. The al-Ajj is to raise your voice in pronouncing the Talbiyah Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik out loud, while the al -Thalj is to slaughter an animal on the day of Eid.
It all goes back to AD The origin of the rift was a dynastic dispute, between supporters of the Prophet's family, represented by Aji, and the Prophet's companions, He mentioned in Chapter One Karbala the following: Arrival of Sharif Idriss to the Maghreb. He brought his title Aji with him from the Hijaz. He died in A. I, Paris ; in Arabic see: Extraits du Kitab al-Ansab, pg.
Aji reappears as ruler and founder of the Indonesian kingdom. The title Aji is still in use today. Malay Kingdom in Indonesia, see: Reverend Monarch , a title said to be of Sanskrit origin. The dynasty changed in the s but the title is still in use today. In the 12th c. This was the era when Aji lords such as Mochidzuki and Amawari were active and later became lord of Katsuren Castle. Once again the title of Aji reappears during the 17thth c. Amir, our commander, our ruler, our Imam obligation: My forefathers saga, the holders of the title al Aji began with Idris and continued with his son the founder of Fès.
Photo taken by Mr. According to photo records received, the missing panel on your left was already missing in The Panel above the gate entrance contains a poem which is published by H. Bulletin archéologique, , p. Courtesy of Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris. Adolph von Conring Berlin, , in: He had died in A.
In order to commemorate his brother Sharif Sidi Muhammad III dedicated the inscription in his and his brother's name and title. Besides, in Arabic - the term " servant " is only referring, or is to be translated as: Hans Peter Schaefer, Köln. La racine du mot "Laalaj". However, many of their inscriptions which included the title of: Was said by a Pharaoh about years before Moses.
This article is intended as a reply to all those who call the Arabs pagans. This they neglect to do although they know before hand that it might risk to end up in a catastrophe due to provocation and lack of knowledge. One can but wonder why they let it happen anyway??????? Therefore, I urge all the Arabs - Christians, Moslems and Jews - do not let yourselves be provoked by this group's expression that your ancestors were pagans because this is simply misleading.
Please remember that Abraham, Ismail, Jesus, as well as prophet Muhammad himself peace and blessings be upon them were of Arab descent and all together condemned idol worshipping and taught us to believe in only one mighty God for all. As of today, the oldest idol found is recorded to be from: Martin Kuckenburg, Als der Mensch zum Schöpfer wurde. An den Wurzeln der Kultur, Stuttgart, , Abb.
Here we take a minute to reflect on the means, purpose and use of idols which was a common practice throughout all the world since the beginning of time and as we will see was definitely not practiced by Arabs alone. We further have ample records of various types and styles of idols which were made in different periods throughout the world. This is why I must stop here and return to our main subject, idols of Arabia. During 's of years people were living in different regions and amongst different tribes within the vast land of the Middle East and North Africa.
They were mostly nomads, constantly travelling within the vast land as herdsman, merchants or shepherds. As today, they were confronted by many economical hardships droughts and political disturbances wars between countries or tribes which as today created many Muhajir refugees. Naturally, all these Muhajir's brought with them their old political and religious cultures when settling within new countries or tribes. This resulted in a huge mix of different people following various religious believes.
This phenomenon was especially noticeable within big cities because, some of these Muhajir's opened their own small temples, chapels, shrines etc. So, once the Quraishy trade caravan had arrived to one of these distant countries, as for example to Mesopotamia, they found themselves within a new trade possibility amongst their own - the trade of idols.
Further, in ancient times the trade of idols was heavily influenced by the believe in "protection" and "religious identity", especially since according to myths - that if an individual owned one or the other idol - he or she could be prevented from harm, misfortune, sickness, or - the idol was to bring him or her prosperity, health, fertility and etc. Therefore, it should be clear that the trade of idols was too, a flourishing business throughout the entire region and hence was also used for political and religious purposes, as well as for prestige.
Today the same is true for a Palestinian refugee living in London who placed a picture of the al-Aqsa Mosque in his house, or - with regards to a Moslem who placed the pictured word of Allah in his house, or - with regards to a carved statue of the Christ placed in the house of a British citizen who lives in the middle of Africa, or - with regards to a Menorah placed within a shop, house or synagogue of a Jewish citizen living in Europe, they all claim and insist that this gives them comfort and protection.
There is absolutely no harm in this believe as long as it's purpose is aimed for the good and above all enforces the believe into one mighty God for all as taught to us by Abraham, Ismail, Jesus and prophet Muhammad peace and blessings be upon them - then, it's their freedom to do so. Let us return to the Kaabah. In Pre-Islamic times the Kaabah was also an international gathering point for merchants who passed through the Hijaz with their trade caravans. While entering through the Meccan gate one first stopped to pay his respect and then set forth to go about his business, or took a short rest and or joined into discussions with other persons and followers who believed in one mighty God.
But most important is the fact that at the time, everybody who believed in the mighty God had the right to enter the Kaabah. It is also true that in time of need the Kaabah was there to offer shelter and refuge to people in need. Once again, at the time it did not matter who or from where the people came from - the Kaabah's duty was to help. One can but imagine how many persons arrived from all these distant countries and tribes to this holy house of God.
Logically this fact should also let us understand why there were so many different idols placed in and on the Kaabah. However, in early days these idols were merely a kind of gifts, an offering to the Kaabah, meant as a kind of thank you - while other persons might have left a sheep, salt, sugar or other goods for the Kaabah - well, whatever one wished to share.
Today, similar gestures are still practiced within churches - by people giving a little money and light a candle. According to scholars, the Kaabah's main idol was Hubal and that he was carved out of red agate. Please note that this incident took place around years before the birth of the Prophet Muhammad pbuh.
So, when Amr ibn Luh'ay entered with his caravan through the Meccan gate he naturally went first to the holy house of God in order to pay his respect and at the same time placed Hubal there.
This was a gift worthy of a king and at the time brought lots of pride and prestige to the Kaabah. But it is also possible to visualize that Amr ibn Luh'ay undertook this trip for two reasons.
Firstly, to advanture for new trade possibilities and secondly, to use the occasion to visit Abraham's his forefather's birthplace. If this visit did in fact happen, then such an impressive trade caravan would not have remained unnoticed. The local chieftains must have sent out for Amr ibn Luh'ay and ask him to come and join them. Once there, he most likely told them from where he had come from and why. When the chieftains learned of his noble descent they naturally would take him to see the temple of one of their most precious idols, Hubal.
Let us remember that Hubal was said to have been carved out of red agate. We also must be aware that at the time this kind of stone was rather rare but especially so when of large size and therefore most valuable. This is why an idol carved out in red agate was more than just an idol - it was their patrimoine. And with regards to the broken arm - well, perhaps it was the idol which was spared by Abraham from being destroyed!
Having the noble descendant and chieftain of the holy house of God amongst them, it could be possible that the local chieftains entrusted the chieftain Amr ibn Luh'ay to take Hubal and to place him in the Kaabah. Hence, an ancient patrimoine could remind the descendants of Abraham of their forefather's origin, while back in Mesopotamia, the local citizen were assured to be represented by Hubal within one of the most holy houses of God and further were automatically protected by the descendants of the kingdom of Hijaz as both were linked to Abraham.
He did so because the Kaabah turned to be used for business and monopoly rather than for education and worship. Once again the followers had distant themselves from the right path.
They had abolished and forgotten the right ways of life. Therefore, prophet Muhammad pbuh went and did just as Abraham had done before him. Through the Torah, the Bible and the Koran we are told of another similar matter which had taken place in Jerusalem at the time of Jesus - Jesus throwing out their businesses and their idols from within the holy house of God.
Abraham who went to the temple and destroyed all the idols except for one and afterwards had to leave his father's house, and prophet Muhammad pbuh who repeated the same at the Kaabah. A simple repeat of history or a warning from God!??? Some are inscribed in Sanskrit, some are even engraved with a cross, there are also various inscriptions on the walls in Aramaic, Greek, Latin, Arabic etc.!
Through this act prophet Muhammad pbuh liberated the people, so the people. He, the prophet Muhammad pbuh gave them freedom. Later, prophet Muhammad pbuh performed the Haj and ever since, every Moslem, women and men can perform and follow their Islamic religious call. However, we must remember that in those particular times, as well as during the ten-thousands of years prior to Pre-Islamic times, people had idols.
Nowadays people collect idols for various purposes as for, research, knowledge, history, prestige, as well as to improve a better understanding between people of different cultural backgrounds. Here we invite you to see some of our idols. Some of them were sold in the past to museums, religious institutions as well as to private collectors.
At first, the reader must be aware that in Section 1: IV were strictly forbidden by law Sharia. Further, it was impossible for any artist to see a Sharif on his own. However, when a Foreign Delegations was received at the Sharifian Court, then such a delegation was sometimes accompanied by an artist, example: During such an occasions the accompanying artist had, but a brief glance at the Sharif from far distance.
All of what the artist saw he had to absorb and memorise in his head as otherwise he would have taken an enormous risk by making a sketch on the spot. The very same law was applicable for the minting of Islamic coins. But as the Sharifians were "exchanged" the rules started to change.
Hence, today the portraits of the rulers are on the currencies and the portraits of the rulers are on display as well. This old established law on portraits was written with good intentions in order to prevent another kind of worship. This rule however, opened the way for the future occupier to fabricate history. This drawing was made by a talented artist blessed with a photographic memory.
Encyclopaedia of the Orient. Histoire des conquestes de Mouley Archy, connu sous le nom de Roy de Tafilet, et de Mouley Ismaël ou Seméin, son frère, et son successeur à présent Regnant. Avec une carte du Païs In Gerhard Rohlfs - Gesammelte Werke: Gesandtschaften von und nach Marokko.
Der Sultan erscheint auf einem schneeweissen, reich aufgeschirrten Hengst, das einemal hat er einen Litham Schleier vor, das anderemal ist er entschleiert. Tangier American Legation Museum Society. Sidi Muhammad's eye problem. This was recorded by several Europeans in addition to American Thomas Barclay.
Drawing by Colonel Maurice Bagenal St. For references by Mrs. Sharif Abderrahman ben Muhammad al-Aji. Further information still pending. Toulouse, Musée des Augustins. Delacroix, paintings, and politics at the Salon of The country, is in a more wretched state of anarchy London, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Chapter 8 page Some of these 17th - 19th c.
For further references see: Edward Said - On Orientalism , Second: The other reason was a military one. As Europe's kingdoms were once again in a desperate need to put their hands on other countries wealth and belongings they had to create a propaganda of fear with drawings in order to convince their citizens to take-up the arms against the Sharifian rulers.
Another way was in demonstrating- or use of military force. Through such acts of force Europeans let the Sharif understand that he was well advised by simply signing Europe's new trade agreements favourable to Europe or risk to be occupied. Similar situations you still witness in the case of Palestine, Iraq, Africa and etc. He constructed his capital in the city of Meknes. During his 55 year reign, Jews were protected from violence.
Daluin, par l'Empereur du Maroc à Rabat, dimanche le 4 décembre à 10 heures. Le tableau a été peint par le peintre Félix Augustin Milius, Tanger , size: And in the " Gibraltar Chronicle , December 12, we read: The Sultan is still here, and has now been visited by most of the Representatives of the European Powers who ordinarily reside at Tangier.
The Ministers and diplomatic agents of England, France, Spain, Italy and Belgium have made their appearance at the Sultan's Court, or we should rather say, his camp Nineteenth-century engraving showing the Sultan of Morocco receiving Sir Moses Montefiore in the courtyard of his palace at Marrakech.
By Michael Palomino in: On matters regarding a decree dahir we received the following information: They simply stamped their seal which bears their name and the "prayer". As for this original dahir - we been unable to locate its whereabouts! Sephardi And Middle Eastern Jewries. History and Culture in the Modern Era. Schroeter and Joseph Chetrit , page The challenge to the dhimma system is best symbolized by the visit of Moses Montefiore to Morocco in Montefiore went to the court of Sultan Mawlay Abd ar-Rahman in Marrakech and through the backing of the British government Esquisse historique du tapis marocains: En , le Sultan Moulay Abderrahman envoie, avec un célèbre commerçant de Fès, à la deuxième exposition universelle de Paris, "tout ce qu'il y a de mieux Cet article est paru dans "Du signe à l'image" , le tapis marocain by Prof.
Ali Amahan; Edition Lak international; who told that he took this information from a book written by Prof. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The name menara derives from the pavillon with its small green pyramid roof menzeh.
The pavillon was built during the 16th century Saadi dynasty and renovated in by Sultan Abderrahmane of Morocco, who used to stay here in summertime. The pavillon and the great water reservoir were built by Saadian Sultan Abd er Rahman in For further informations on how artists solved their problems in "Orient-Malerei" you may like to read the following article in:. Professeur Pierre Rousseau confirme que tous ces portraits ont été réalisés durant le 20e siècle par V. Zveg et se trouvent au Palais Royal de Rabat.
Ces tableaux figurent dans les livres de Daniel Eustache 3. All above reproduced so-called "Alawi Dynasty paintings" section 2 are belonging to a series of 20th century portraits made for the Mausoleum of Sidi Muhammad V, construction from: A copy of such a product or rather, a falsification of documents is: The very same fake was likewise used in Tanger: Porte entre Deux Mondes by Prof.
Jean-Louis Miège, a F-historian and expert in Moroccan history; b. Today, the artist name is known to be V. What a shameful thing to do! You, the historians, knowledgeable and highly regarded scholars and experts in Arabian history, religion, law and culture, are now educating your students and citizens that all these above forged portraits are the true portraits of the individual Sharif.
Sidi Muhammad's eye problem was mentioned by several Europeans in addition to American Thomas Barclay. Un chargé d'affaires au Maroc: La correspondence du consul Louis Chénier, Pierre Grillon, editor Paris, S.
From a visage naturally long, and a distortion of one eye, united with an acqired habit of austerity, his appearance at first was rather disgusting to strangers; but that impression was soon worn off by the affability of his conversation.. Thomas Barclay in described the sultan's appearance as "He is of a middle Stature, inclining to fat, and has a remarkable cast in his right eye which looks blacker than the other".
Roberts and Richard S. This work first appeared in Hebrew in , an account of the author's four years in Morocco from It was translated by Yedida K. Stillman and Norman A. His eyes are like burning torches, and his voice is powerful". We thank Priscilla H.
Roberts for these references. Only, - why is there such an urgency in doing such a thing? Well, the answer to this question you may find within the following explanation: Granville enclosed the Queen's letter of accreditation, and Hay was instructed to present it to the Sultan as soon as convenient.
After his return to Tangier Drummond-Hay wrote to Lord Granville on 18 May , saying that during his visit to Court he had judged it wise to make friends with Sidi Moussa. Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Chapter 8 page Sidi Moussa was succeeded, when he died in , by his son Ba Ahmed ben Moussa. Morocco since by C. Alawi Arabic are a sect akin to Shi'ite Islam in Syria. The Alawi are not to be confused with Alevi. The question of whether or not Alawi are Muslims is disputed.
Alawites are a minority but they are politically powerful today. The clan of the ruling Assad family is Alawi or Alawite and under their rule, the Alawi were legitimized officially as Muslims. Alawi were possibly originally Nusayriya, an off-shoot sect of Twelver Shiites that split off in the 9th century. The sect may have been organized by a follower of Ibn Nusayr's, al-Khasibi, who died in Aleppo in about Al-Tabarani, a grandson of al-Khasibi moved to Latakia on the Syrian coast.
There he gathered a following and converted much of the local population. Under the French mandate, Alawi and other minorities got autonomy and were accepted as colonial troops. Many Alawite chieftains opted for a separate Alawite nation and tried to convert their autonomy into independence. An Alawite territory was created in , and in May , the Government of Latakia was created.
It was incorporated into Syria on February 28, This has been a source of bitterness for Syrians and Alawites in particular. Zaki al-Arsuzi, a young Alawite leader from Antioch in Iskandrun later named the Hatay by the Turks who led the resistance to the annexation of Alexandretta to the Turks, later became one of the founders of the Ba'ath Party. Alawite followers of Sulayman al-Murshid tried to resist integration.
However, you should be aware that there is is a dispute as there are about many points as to whether the Alawi are or are not related to the Alevi in Turkey. About half the sources I have consulted are quite confident that they the same sect, and the other half are quite sure they are not. Sorry, Arte was unable to give us the right to publish these three photos. Nonetheless, thanks to YouTube you can see the part mentioned here for yourself - see below.
These three clips are from episode 1 of the French movie "Revivre" aka "Milch und Honig". Here we see and hear a group of Jewish-Moroccan citizens rehearsing their religious practises while some wear the red Tarboosh. Despicable war crimes were committed against my forefathers, the Sharifian Sultanate, in which Swiss military regiments actively participated in and this at least since Naturally, the Swiss government would not have involved herself without making sure that the government will benefit from this.
However, many many family members belonging to the Sharifian al-Aji's lost their lives because of this but this is especially true once the Alawi-Freemason's were put in power starting with Hasan I, in From this day on one tried not only to eliminate the Seed of the Noble Sharifian bloodline but rather tried to annul its very existence throughout history! In all of this the Swiss government played an active role.
All this was handled by a Swiss, designated by the Swiss government and the Tribunal Fédéral in Lausanne. But always in accordance and at the satisfaction of the French and Spaniards. Aus dem Nachlass des Prof. For references on Dr. Historisch-Biographisches Lexikon der Schweiz, 4. Band, Güttingen-Mailand, Neuenburg Imagine the amazement by which the Swiss government must have been struck with when suddenly realizing that as of October 3, , they had the Seed of the Noble Sharifian al-Aji descendant residing within their own territory, along with his Swiss wife and his father by adoption the Hon.
He, my husband, had no knowledge of his descent! At first the daily live and business was moving on very well. However, this changed when my father-in-law had a routine check-up with one of his old Swiss doctors Urologist. As my husband had accompanied him he BYB informed my husband right away that he had been given an injection by his doctor. Well, around 5 to 7 hours later my father-in-law was dead. This was also the last tim e my husband was permitted to see his father. But this is only one of many mysterious circumstances which happened from this day on.
They were directed against my husband 's life, our business, our children and etc. Finally, ostr acized and unprotected we found ourselves in midst of a holocaust which was instigated against us by above mentioned groups.
A partir de Possibilité d'intervention d'un agent de sécurité et des forces de l'ordre si nécessaire. De même qu'il existe plusieurs types de cambriolages, on peut distinguer différents profils de cambrioleurs. Parmi ces décès, on compte enfants de moins de 15 ans. En poursuivant votre navigation, vous acceptez l'utilisation de cookies à des fins de statistiques, de mesure d'audience, et de publicité ciblée. Pour en savoir plus et paramétrer les cookies: En savoir plus X.
Mais Gilles Gauthier, diplomate qui a terminé sa carrière comme ambassadeur au Yémen juste avant que le pays ne prenne feu par la folie de son voisin saoudien, est un passionné, doté d'une excellente plume et d'une grande culture. Son livre est un agréable et fort réussi cocktail de tous ces genres. Il aurait pu être raté. On l'aura compris, l'auteur est un amoureux du monde arabe.
Il en est un connaisseur hors pair. Il n'en est quasiment pas reparti et partage aujourd'hui son temps entre Paris et l'Institut du monde arabe, où il est une des chevilles ouvrières des grandes expositions on lui doit, en particulier, celle sur les cent ans du canal de Suez , et Le Caire, où il a fini par s'établir partiellement.
Il renoue là-bas avec cette période heureuse de sa vie où, avant d'être consul à Alexandrie, il occupa le poste de conseiller culturel de l'ambassade de France, créant des filières francophones dans les lycées, et obtenant qu'un quotidien arabophone publie chaque semaine quatre pages en français. Ce livre plein de couleurs et de rencontres, d'amitiés qui se sont prolongées à travers les décennies, est avant tout un livre plein d'humour.
Ainsi se souvient-il, amusé, des compliments dithyrambiques que lui prodiguera un responsable du Quai d'Orsay sur sa connaissance du Moyen-Orient alors qu'il venait d'être reçu au concours de secrétaire.
En fait, on voulait lui faire accepter un poste à Bagdad, où personne ne voulait aller car la guerre s'y préparait. Gauthier enthousiaste y partit quarante-huit heures plus tard. Il est vrai qu'il n'est pas un diplomate tout à fait ordinaire. Il n'a pas fait l'ENA mais Langues O' après quelques années de coopération comme enseignant en Algérie et au Maroc, où il découvrit la langue arabe. Tout était à construire dans ce pays dévasté, tout semblait possible.
Au point que, le temps passant, l'auteur a oublié combien la vie était dure pour ses habitants à l'époque et comment Boumédiène le dirigeait d'une main de fer.